Glossary of Terms

ANADROMOUS - fish which spend a part of their lives in both fresh and salt water. These fish reproduce in freshwater and spend most of their juvenile life there and a portion of their adult life at sea (e.g. sea-run Atlantic salmon, Brook, Rainbow and Brown trout)

AQUATIC - having to do with water

AQUATIC INVERTEBRATE - all animal forms which live in a water (aquatic) environment and which do not possess backbones. This term is commonly used as a general term to describe stream dwelling insects

ARMOUR STONING - placing stone or rock against a riverbank to protect it from erosion

CANOPY - the top of a forest formed by the leaves and branches of the trees. The size of the canopy determines how much light reaches the forest floor and the stream if the trees that shade the sun are located in the streamside zone

CATADROMOUS - fish which spend a portion of their lives in both freshwater and salt water. Catadromous fish reproduce in salt water and their young go into freshwater systems and grow to maturity before they return to the seas as adults to reproduce (eg. American eels)

CONSERVATION - preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife

COVER LOG - a rock and log structure installed in a stream to provide fish with shelter and protection from predators. Imitates natural cover habitat such as fallen trees and other large woody debris

CRIB - a wood and rock structure installed against a riverbank to stabilize the bank and reduce erosion

CULVERT - a concrete, metal, or wooden structure installed under a road, railway line or other stream crossing, intended to carry water

DEFLECTOR - an angled structure consisting of wooden logs and stone, placed in a stream to help redirect water flow. Deflectors function by diverting water flow and re-establishing natural stream widths, depths, and meander pattern

DIADROMOUS - fish which spend part of their lives in freshwater and part of their lives in salt water

DIGGER LOG - a wooden log structure that is placed across the width of a stream to mimic naturally fallen trees. These structures work with the river flows to create pools and enhance other instream habitat features; water flows over the log and scours a pool (important fish habitat) on the downstream side. Digger logs also help trout and salmon populations by cleaning fine sediments out of spaces between gravel particles, which are important hiding places for juvenile fish and insects

ECOLOGY - the study of living things and their relationship to their environment, home, or community

ECOSYSTEM - - an interrelated and interdependent community of plants and animals and their habitats

ELECTROFISHING - a method of fish collection, usually involving the use of a backpack unit and probe, that creates an electrical current in a water body to temporarily stun fish species. Used during fish rescues and research to assess fish populations

EROSION - the weathering of the earth's surface by the action of wind, water, gravity, and ice. This can be increased by human disturbance

ESTUARY - where freshwater meets saltwater

FISH PASSAGE - the ability of a fish to move from one area of a stream or waterway to another

FISHWAY - a man-made structure installed in a watercourse to improve fish passage past a man-made or natural obstruction (e.g. dam, or natural falls). Fishways consist of a series of steps or pools that allow fish to gradually ascend otherwise steep elevations. Also called a fish ladder

HABITAT - the place where an animal lives. The Fisheries Act of Canada defines fish habitat as "spawning grounds and nursery, rearing, food supply and migration areas on which fish depend directly or indirectly in order to carry out their life processes." (sec. 34(l))

HABITAT REQUIREMENTS - food, water, shelter (cover), and space in the right combinations at the proper time of year

HEADWATER - the highest elevation or upper area of a watershed where stream water flow originates

LARGE WOODY DEBRIS (LWD) - tree trunks or branches that fall into a watercourse and that provide cover and shelter to fish. LWD also aids in the development of pools and other important physical habitat features. The proper amount of large woody debris can make the difference between poor and excellent fish habitat in many streams. Also called large organic debris (LOD)

MIGRATION - fish movement from a lake or the sea and into a river or stream, or from the sea to freshwater

NATIVE SPECIES - a plant or animal originating in and characteristic of a particular region, and that has not been unnaturally introduced from another area or region

NURSERY HABITAT - habitat used by juvenile fish for feeding, cover, growth, etc

POOL - water of considerable depth for the size of stream. Pools generally have slowly flowing water and a smooth surface, but they can often have a swift turbulent area where the water enters them

REDD - the gravel nest of salmonid fishes

REHABILITATION - the restoration or rebuilding of degraded or impaired fish habitat and / or water quality

RIFFLE - shallow water with rapid current and with surface flow broken by gravel or rubble

RIPARIAN ZONE - a narrow strip of natural vegetation along waterways used to moderate the effects of surface runoff. Also called the buffer strip or a greenbelt

RIPRAP - a foundation or wall made of broken rock or logs. The wall created by either an irregular or pre determined design

SALMONID - refers to a member of the fish family classed as Salmonidae, including salmon, trout, whitefish, and char

SEDIMENTATION - deposition of eroded fine soil material on the stream bed

SILT - eroded fine soil material

SILTATION - entry of eroded fine soil material into a water body

SPAWNING - reproductive process of fish whereby eggs are desposited and fertilized

SPORT FISH - species of fish that people target during angling or fishing (e.g. salmon, trout, bass)

STEWARDSHIP - the careful and responsible management of something entrusted to one's care

SUBSTRATE - rocks, stones and boulders found on the bottom of a stream. Stream substrate provides fish protection from predators, weather, and other factors

SUSTAINABILITY - development or use of resources that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

TREE REVETMENT - a foundation or wall made of tree stumps, roots or logs. The wall created by either an irregular or pre determined design

TRIBUTARY- a smaller stream which flows into a bigger stream or river

WATER QUALITY - a general term commonly used in reference to chemical characteristics and temperature of the water

WATERCOURSE - means any creek, brook, stream, river, lake, pond, spring, lagoon or any other natural body of water, and includes all the water in it, and also the bed and the shore (whether there is actually any water in it or not). It also includes all ground water

WATERSHED - all of the land and water components through which water drains into a river

WETLAND - an area of land whose soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally. Includes bogs, fens, marshes and swamps. Wetlands are important habitat that store carbon, act as filtration systems, and regulate water levels in watercourses